Aluminium Recycling – Pyrocrat Systems

Aluminium is one of the most abundant element on the earth. Due to its low density and resistance to corrosion, it has a lot of applications in various industries. Due to its high strength to weight ratio, the metal is widely used in transportation industry for fabricating bodies of railway coaches. This helps in achieving high fuel efficiency. In construction industry, aluminium is preferred because of its corrosion resistance. Also, aluminium can be given beautiful finishing by bending it into curves which can’t be obtained in case of wood or iron. It is widely used in electronics in wiring and also for making cases and other hardware. It is widely used in packaging of food and beverages.

With such a wide range of usage of the metal, it is obvious that it will eventually produce waste in huge quantities. Aluminium is one of the major waste material in the category of e-waste. The cost of aluminium recycling is far cheaper than the cost of production. The cost of recycling is just 5% of  what is required to produce the metal from its ore i.e. bauxite. Hence it is preferred for aluminium to be recycled rather than extracting it from its ore. It is the only material that pays off really well for recycling. Brazil recycles up to 98.2% of the aluminium cans produced.

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Recycling of Aluminium

A variety of programs can be implemented to recycle aluminium. Municipal programs are one of the most popular ones for aluminium recycling.  In these programs, household items like beverage cans, aluminum foil, aluminum baking trays etc. are recycled.

Around 90 % of the aluminum in building and automotive parts is recycled at the end of use. All of these items can further be sent  to aluminum recyclers where the metal is melted down in the secondary production process. Approximately 75% of aluminium produced until now has been recycled and used.

Recycling Process

  1. Aluminium cans and other aluminium waste is  first segregated from municipal waste, using an eddy current separator. The waste is further shredded into smaller sized pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. To minimize the oxidation losses when the metal melts, waste pieces are then cleaned chemically/mechanically.
  3. Metal blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 650 °C to 850 °C to produce molten aluminium.
  4. Chlorine and nitrogen gas is used for degassing to remove dissolved hydrogen and dross. Hexachloroethane tablets are used as source of chlorine gas.
  5. After spectroscopic analysis of the samples, metals like tin, copper, zinc, etc. can be added in appropriate quantities to obtain desired alloys.
  6. The molten mass can then be cast into desired shapes like rods, slabs, ingots, etc.

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E-waste Management

E-waste or electronic waste are the out of use electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics that are bound to be reused, resold, recycled, or to be disposed are also considered e-waste. Improper processing of e-waste can lead to environmental pollution and adverse health effects. Electronic waste includes washing machines, dryers, refrigerators, computers, television, mobile phones, etc. A great care must be taken while handling e-waste as land-filling or incinerating can lead to emission of toxic substances into the environment. Devices like Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) contains lead and phosphors that are necessary for display. But CRT is very difficult to recycle.

The development in technology causes older technology to be replaced. The newer technology is bought by the consumer and the consumer rejects the older products. These old products mostly land up as waste.  This is one of the major reasons for a huge growth in e-waste. The generation of E-waste is on an estimated 5% to 10% global increase in  each year.

Outdated electronic gadgets are quickly filling the landfills across the globe. In the United States itself, more than 100 million PCs are thrown off. Of these 100 million, less than 20% being reused. In the US alone, more than 100 million computers are thrown away with less than 20% being recycled properly of which 60 million metric tons enter landfills every year. Most gadgets that are carelessly discarded contain some type of destructive materials, for example, beryllium, cadmium, mercury and lead. These materials may be in trace, but when added to a huge volume, the risk to the earth is critical.

E-Waste Recycling

Electronic waste processing usually first involves dismantling the equipment into various parts (metal frames, power supplies, circuit boards, plastics), often by hand. In an automatic system, a hopper passes on material for shredding into a mechanical separator. with screening and crushing machines to isolate constituent metal and plastic parts, which are sold to smelters or plastics recyclers. Such reusing apparatus is encased and utilizes a tidy gathering framework. A portion of the discharges are gotten by scrubbers and screens. Magnets, eddy currents, and trommel screens are utilized to isolate glass, plastic, and ferrous and nonferrous metals.

Recycling raw materials from end-of-life gadgets is the best answer for the growing e-waste issue. Most electronic gadgets contain an various materials, including metals that can be recouped for future use. By dismantling and reusing the gadgets. Also, natural resources are conserved and air and water contamination caused by toxic wastes is avoided. Moreover, recycling decreases the amount of polluting substance discharged as in the case of manufacturing new products. Materials that can be reused incorporate ferrous and non-ferrous metals, glass, and different sorts of plastic. Non-ferrous metals, predominantly aluminum and copper would all be able to be re-smelted and re-manufactured. Ferrous metals, for example, steel and iron can be likewise be re-utilized.

Pyrocrat Systems is a waste management company by Suhas Dixit, based in Navi Mumbai, India that manufactures machinery for pyrolysis plants that convert plastic and tire waste into pyrolysis oil.

 

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Deonar Landfill Fire | Suhas Dixit | Pyrocrat Systems Review

Following satellite images dated January 2016 form NASA show the landfill site fire at Deonar, Mumbai. The landfill fire caused serious drip in air quality & smog around the city for several days. Pyrocrat Systems review the causes of the fire.

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Why Landfill Site Catches Fire?

A landfill fire occurs when waste dumped of in a landfill site ignites & fire spreads. In landfills that do not cover their waste with daily cover of soil, biological decomposition creates substantial heat & methane. This flammable combination of heat and methane gas cause materials in the landfills to spontaneously ignite.

Suhas dixit review pyrocrat review

Landfill methane & fire

What most of us do not know is: Municipal Solid Waste disposed of in landfill generates 2 to 15 kg of “landfill gas” per metric ton of waste per year. Landfill gas generally contains 45-60% methane and 45-60% of Carbon Dioxide. Methane is 25 to 30 times more potent green house gas and contributes marginally to global worming. Methane generated from landfill sites is highly flammable. Typically the landfill site has about 100 to 300 feet height of garbage stacked over area of several hectors. Such a huge mass of garbage generates hundreds of kilograms of methane every day. Thousands of kilograms of methane remains trapped several feet below surface, waiting to ignite.

Pyrocrat Systems Review on Preventive Mearures

Large scale landfill fires indicate lack of following preventive measures:

  1. Scientific Waste Management: Effective segregation, material  recovery and composting of daily municipal solid waste. Government of India has established MSW Rules 2000 for effective management and handling of municipal solid waste. Machinery and Technology is now available to recycle up to 80% of municipal solid waste. This ensures that only 20% quantity of waste reaches landfill site & thereby reduce the fire risk and landfill emission by 80%.
    pyrocrat systems review
  2. Cover the landfill with scientific layer of rock bed, geo-textile and soil. Drill methane capture wells in the landfill sites to collect underground methane to fire/explosion.pyrocrat systems review
  3. Methane Capture and Flaring/Utilization: The landfill gas must be captured using a scientifically proven methods to prevent landfill fires. Captured methane can be used for power generation.
    Suhas dixit review pyrocrat review
  4. Bio-remediation and scientific landfill site closure: Bio-remediation is the use of biological methods to degrade, disintegrate, transform and/or eliminate contaminants from municipal solid waste. Bio-remediation is a natural process that utilizes the normal life functions of bacteria, fungi & plants. Bio-remediation and scientific closure of landfill site is essential to prevent fire and emission of hazardous landfill gas.
    pyrocrat systems review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Waste Management at Construction Site

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waste management at construction site

Development organizations and venture supervisors comprehend the significance of a waste management system. For certain , the development segment – in charge of 33% of all waste in the India and 45% of its carbon emanations – is a key concentration for the Government.

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Pyrocrat Systems bags waste management project in Africa

Pyrocrat Systems ReviewMumbai, October 29: Pyrocrat Systems LLP, India’s leading developer & manufacturer of municipal solid waste management machinery ventured into African market. Pyrocrat is become the first Indian company to discuss with Government of Burundi to set up one of the largest waste management project in a Public Private Partnership (PPP) basis. The project will be in similar to company’s present project to manage 300 tons per day of Navi Mumbai’s solid waste. Read more

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Mr Suhas Dixit Review on “Waste Management & Plastic Pyrolysis” Pyrocrat Systems LLP

The evening of 26th August 2015 Mr. Suhas Dixit, Director of Pyrocrat Systems LLP delivered A Speech on “Sustainable Waste Management”. His review was received positively by the audience including 15 Ambassadors and High Commissions of African Nations.

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Mr Suhas Dixit mentioned in his speech that the waste management is essential part of building smart cities of tomorrow. Effective waste management can help city recycle more than 70 to 80% of municipal solid waste to manufacture high quality compost, refuse derived fuel, recyclable materials and energy. Municipal solid waste is mixture of products discarded by the general population and if these products are segregated, they can be recycled or reused for energy production. Mostly the current waste management projects in Africa and India failed due to faulty machinery & technology that are not segregate waste. Pyrocrat Systems LLP has developed machines for effective Municipal Solid Waste Segregation, Composting & Material Recovery. Plastic recovered from Municipal solid waste can be reused to manufacture industrial diesel using Plastic Pyrolysis Plants. Pyrocrat Systems LLP has developed machinery for effective segregation, composting, recycling and energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste.

Pyrocrat Systems LLP currently has multiple waste management projects operationalsuhas dixit review pyrocrat systems review wherein waste plastic is converted into industrial diesel for energy recovery. Once of such solid waste management projects is operational in Navi Mumbai managing 300,000kg per day of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) of Navi Mumbai and Panvel cities. He said that like in most of Africa, waste is not segregated at source in India. Pyrocrat has developed unique and patent pending technology to recycle MSW that is not segregated at source. All of the African Ambassadors have not only appreciated the technology and the solutions provided but also were very keen on utilizing these waste management facilities in their countries. All speakers stressed on need to work together for effective waste management for better and greener tomorrow.

The evening marked a step ahead towards further enhancement of Indo-Africa Trade by means of waste management couples with plastic and tire pyrolysis solutions by Pyrocrat Systems LLP.

Brighter future of waste management in India

The new Government is actively creating environment to promote quality and investments in field of waste management. They are drafting new rules for managing waste more effectively than ever before!

Given below is the draft of Proposed MSW Management and Handling Rules 2015 with comments from Pyrocrat’s Experts:

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FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions about MSW Management

  1. What is a MSW segregation plant?C

MSW or Municipal solid waste refers to commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical waste. A Municipal solid waste segregation machine can convert waste to energy to generate electricity as per norms of Municipal Solid Waste Rules 2000.

  1. What is meant by Municipal solid waste?

Municipal solid waste refers to waste from garbage collected through community sanitation services. For example food waste, green waste, paper, plastics, fabrics, metals, glass etc.

  1. What kind of waste can be used in a MSW segregation plant?

Any municipal waste containing carbon will be suitable and the types of wastes that can be accepted is solid waste that meets the heavy metal criteria for Class III landfill in the Landfill Waste Classification and Waste Definition 1996 (amended 2009) and liquid waste that has less than 1% halogen content.  For example,

  • Municipal solid waste food waste, market waste, yard wastes, plastics, residential, commercial and industrial sources. Few examples are mentioned below.
  • Biodegradable waste – green waste, food and kitchen waste, paper etc.
  • Recyclable materials – glass, bottles, paper, plastic, clothes etc.
  • Inert waste – construction waste, dirt, rocks, debris etc.
  • Electrical and electronic waste – electrical appliances, TVs, computers, screens etc.
  • Composite wastes – waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastics such as toys.
  1. What are the benefits of settings up a MSW segregation plant?

The facility can provide electrical power to numerous households and will help to generate renewable energy which will greatly reduce the state’s dependence on fossil fuels. Greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by producing renewable electricity from waste instead of landfilling it.

 

  1. Where will the project be located?

The requirements for a MSW segregation plant are as below.

  • Access to major existing power infrastructure.
  • Location within estate’s power generation precinct.
  • Proximity to major regional waste sources.
  • Good separation from the nearest residential land (approximately 6 Km).
  1. What is the scope of this project?

The Government is very supportive of this project and will both supply waste to and will receive power from the waste to energy project. The project is looked upon as a key to the future waste management plans of the Council.